Saturday, September 13, 2008

Longmen Mountains

The Longmen Mountains , also tautologically referred to in English-language publications as the Longmenshan Mountains, are a mountain range in Sichuan province in southwestern China.

Their uplift is a result of vertical slippage on the Longmenshan Fault. The Longmen Mountains represent the eastern rim of the immense Tibetan Plateau.


Lhotse is the fourth highest mountain on Earth and is connected to Everest via the South Col. In addition to the main summit at 8,516 metres above sea level, Lhotse Middle is 8,414 metres and Lhotse Shar is 8,383 metres. It is located at the border between Tibet and Nepal.

Notable Features

Lhotse is best known for its proximity to Mount Everest and the fact that climbers ascending the standard route on that peak spend some time on its northwest face, see below. In fact Lhotse has one of the smallest topographic prominence values of any official eight-thousander, as it rises only 610 m above the South Col. Hence it is often seen as a minor eight-thousander.

However, Lhotse is a dramatic peak in its own right, due to its tremendous south face. This rises 3.2 km in only 2.25 km of horizontal distance, making it the steepest face of this size in the world. The south face has been the scene of many failed attempts, some notable fatalities, and very few ascents .


An early attempt on Lhotse was by the 1955 International Himalayan Expedition, headed by Norman Dyhrenfurth. It also included two Austrians and two Swiss , and was the first expedition in the Everest area to include Americans . The Nepalese liaison officer was Gaya Nanda Vaidya. They were accompanied by 200 local porters and several climbing Sherpas. After a brief look at the dangerous southern approaches of Lhotse Shar, they turned their attention, during September and October, to the West Cwm and the northwest face of Lhotse, on which they achieved an altitude of about . They were beaten back by unexpectedly strong wind and cold temperatures. Under Schneider's direction they completed the first map of the Everest area . The expedition also made several short films covering local cultural topics, and made a number of first ascents of smaller peaks in the Khumbu region.

The main summit of Lhotse was first climbed on May 18, 1956 by the team of Ernst Reiss and Fritz Luchsinger from the Swiss Mount Everest/Lhotse Expedition. On May 12, 1979, Zepp Maierl and Rolf Walter of Austria made the first ascent of Lhotse Shar. Lhotse Middle remained, for a long time, the highest unclimbed named point on Earth; on May 23, 2001, its first ascent was made by Eugeny Vinogradsky, Sergei Timofeev, Alexei Bolotov and Petr Kuznetsov of a Russian expedition.

On 31 December 1988, Krzysztof Wielicki, a Polish climber, completed the first winter ascent of Lhotse.

As of October 2003, 243 climbers have summitted Lhotse and 11 have died.


* 1955 Attempt by the International Himalayan Expedition.
* 1956 First ascent of the main summit.
* 1965 First attempt on Lhotse Shar by a Japanese expedition - reached 8,100m.
* 1979 First ascent of Lhotse Shar
* 1981 April 30 Second ascent of the main summit by Hristo Prodanov, Bulgaria.
* 1981 October 16 Second ascent of Lhotse Shar Switzerland
* 1984 May 20 Third ascent of Lhotse Shar Czechoslovakia
* 1989 Jerzy Kukuczka perishes while climbing the South Face of Lhotse, when his secondhand rope breaks.
* 1996 Chantal Mauduit becomes the first woman to reach the summit of Lhotse.
* 2001 First ascent of Lhotse Middle.
* 2007 Pemba Doma Sherpa, Nepali mountaineer and two-time summiter of , falls to her death from Lhotse at 8000 m

Lhotse Middle

Lhotse Middle was first climbed in 2001 by three groups of Russian climbers. At the time it was the last unclimbed named eight thousand metre summit.

The 2001 climb was not the first expedition to the peak; the idea of its ascent was originated by Vladimir Bashkirov .

Summit party details:
* May 23 - first group: Alexey Bolotov, Sergey Timofeev, Evgeny Vinogradsky, Petr Kuznetsov
* May 24 - second group: Nikolay Zilin, Gleb Sokolov , Yuri Koshelenko
* May 27 - third group: Vladimir Yanochkin, Viktor Volodin

Lhotse Face

The western flank of Lhotse is known as the ''Lhotse Face''. Any climber bound for the South Col on Everest must climb this 1,125m wall of glacial blue ice. This face rises at 40 and 50 degree pitches with the occasional 80 degree bulges. High altitude climbing s and the lead climbers will set fixed ropes up this big wall of ice. Climbers and porters need to establish a good rhythm of front-pointing and pulling themselves up the ropes using their Jumar. Two rocky sections called the Yellow Band and the Geneva Spur interrupt the icy ascent on the upper part of the face.


Laoshan is a famous mountain in Shandong , China. It lies about 30km east of the city of Qingdao, and is an important tourist destination. It is the highest coastal mountain in China, peaking at 1113 meters. It is known as the birthplace of Taoism.


Laoshan has been an important center of Taoism in China for many centuries. In 412 the Chinese pilgrim Faxian landed at Laoshan on his return from India.

Tourism and culture

Most of the mountains numerous palaces, Taoist temples, and nunneries have not survived to the present. Taiqing Palace Taoism Temple , built during the , is the largest. Sanhuang Palace, part of the Taiging complex, has two ancient Cypress trees, said to have been planted during the Han Dynasty.

Many gamblers visit Laoshan for the famous tree located in the mountain, as it is said that three pats of the tree's trunk will bring instant luck for those seeking money.

Tsingtao Brewery is made famous because its beer is said to be brewed with Laoshan spring water.

Khuiten Peak

Khüiten Peak is the highest point in Mongolia, located in the far west of the country. The Peak towers at the elevation of 4,374 m under the permanent snow-cap. It is one of five peaks in the Tavan Bogd Massiv , together with the the Tavan Bogd Uul, which about 2.5 km further north marks the border triangle between Russia, Mongolia, and China. Some sources also label the Khüiten as "Tavan Bogd Uul".



Yun Mountain

Yun Mountain


Yun Mountain is located 5 kilometers away from , a city in the southwest of , China. Its peak elevation is 1372.5 meters, and the annually average temperature there is 15 ° C. In September 1992, it was approved as a national forest park.


The area has a long history, beginning in the and Dynasties when Buddhists settled there. From the to dynasties, it had developed to be a center of Buddhism in Hunan, with a series of amazing temples housing more than 500 monks.

Natural Resource

It has a rich animal and plant resources. Within the 3,118 hectares vegetation area, there is an original secondary of more than 200 hectares. In 1921 an Austrian botanist discovered more than 80 new plant species in Yun Mountain, including 20 species named by Yunshan. So far, we have knownthat, there are 1,518 species of plants and 211 species of animals found in Yun Mountain, including 10 rare species of animals and plants under special protection.

Yuelu Mountain

Mount Yuelu is located on the west bank of Xiang River in Changsha, Hunan, China. Its main peak, Yunlu, is 300 meters high.

Mount Yuelu is noted for its many scenic spots, including Qingfeng gorge, Aiwan Pavilion, Lushan Temple, Yunlu Palace, the White Crane Spring and the Flying Stone.

Qingfeng Gorge lies in the low area between Yuelu Academy and Lushan Temple. It holds Aiwan Pavilion, one of four famous pavilions in ancient China, the Sheli Tower, and the tombs of Huang Xing and Cai E .

*Aiwan Pavilion and was built in A.D.1792. Its original name is Red Leaf Pavilion, later changed based on a poem by Du Mu. Mao Zedong once played and studied here and the remaining tablet was written by Mao Zedong in the 1950s. Aiwan Pavilion is supported by four red poles. There is a tablet with the poem, "Qinyuanchun, Changsha" written by Mao Zedong.
*Lushan Temple is located on the side of the mountain. It was built in A.D.268 and later destroyed and rebuilt several times. It was last rebuilt in the 1980s.
*Yunlu Palace is a Taoist place. The history of Taoist activities in Mount Yuelu is quite long. Yunlu Palace was built in A.D.1478, and Mount Yuelu has been an active center since then.
*The Flying Clock and Flying Stone are also famous attractions in Mount Yuelu. The Flying Clock hangs in a tree near Yunlu Palace. Flying Stone lies under the Flying Clock. 
*The King Yu Tablet: On the Tablet there was carved an article with 77 Chinese characters, now difficult to distinguish. Under the Tablet is Yuji Brook. was an ancient hero who conquered floods.

Xuelian Feng

In 1990, the expedition was led by Kazuo Tukushima, and ascended from the Karakume Glacier. The route ascended the southeast ridge of Junction Peak, then traversed a long corniced snow and rock ridge to reach the main summit tower. Other difficulties involved in the route included technical rock and ice walls, and snow gullies up to 70 degrees in steepness.